What’s that in your neighbor’s backyard? It’s an ADU, planner shorthand for planner longhand “accessory dwelling unit.” It’s just a second, smaller dwelling on the same lot as a single family home. It could be an apartment above a garage, a Tiny House in the backyard, or and addition to the main home.
Tomorrow, the Northfield Planning Commission will hold a public hearing on a revision to the Land Development Code which is intended to make ADUs easier to build in Northfield.
Right now, ADUs are only allowed in Northfield above detached garages – like this one in my neighborhood:
ADUs are permitted in residential zoning districts R1-4 and N1-2 (beige, yellow and orange below).
But there are more regulations (but click for the ordinance text):
- How many? One ADU per lot (and is included in the maximum number of units on a property – most areas allow 1, 2 or 3 dwelling units, so this is not a problem).
- How big? Currently, the property property must have a minimum area of 8,000 square feet and the ADU must not exceed 864 sf and 24 ft high and must fit within the lot coverage (building area ratio) limits.
- Where? The ADU must be part of a detached garage and at least 10 feet from the main dwelling.
- Design, etc.: The ADU must have separate kitchen and bathroom facilities and must be compatible with the main dwelling and the neighborhood.
- What about parking? One off-street parking space in addition to required parking for the main dwelling must be provided.
To name a single reason for the change, I’d say “To remove obstacles which make it difficult or impossible for property owners to improve their property.”
Why would property owners want to add an ADU? That’s not the City’s job to regulate, but the list could include:
- Building an apartment for rental income,
- Making a space for extended family whether simply for proximity, to provide care (whether eldercare, childcare or other care),
- Aging in place by building an ADU to move into as children leave home and renting the main house for income while staying in the same neighborhood.
- Your reason here…
For the City, ADUs tick several policy boxes by providing these benefits
- Incrementally increasing density in existing (often high amenity, highly connected) neighborhoods
- Adding housing with less environmental impact (smaller, on existing infrastructure, etc.)
- Creating more affordable housing, so adding rental units would add to the overall housing supply (the affordability of each ADU would depend on its location and its features) and construction doesn’t require land acquisition.
- Increasing housing diversity.
- Implementing policies on Age-Friendly Northfield, Climate Action, Affordable Housing, and non-motorized transportation.
- Incrementally walking back decades of single-family zoning
Reducing regulations helps get ADUs built. Consider the very different approaches taken by Minneapolis and Saint Paul: Minneapolis made it easy and 92 were built (through 2017 – including this one); Saint Paul limited location and regulated other features and one was permitted. Vancouver, Portland, and Seattle are also ADU standouts. There are other factors which help spur ADU development, but the zoning code is the Planning Commission’s remit, so that’s where we’re starting.
Read the marked up version of the ordinance for the complete text changes, but here’s the good bits
- How many? Still only one.
- How big?: Rather than 864 sf limit, the size is now proportional to the main dwelling at 50% of the primary dwelling or 1,000 square feet in size (whichever is greater) and 24 feet in height. So, if you have a 6,000 sf home, you can add a 3,000 sf ADU. On the other end, if you have a 1500 sf home, you may add an ADU up to 1000 sf. Lot size requirements have been eliminated and ADUs are explicitly exempted from lot coverage requirements.
- Where? Now ADUs are freed from above the garage and may be “added to, created within, or detached from a single-family dwelling” but still must be 10 ft from the main dwelling. Allowing ground floor or detached ADUs can make them more age-friendly or accessible, too.
- Who? ADUs may be added to main dwellings which are not owner-occupied (i.e. adding a rental unit to another rental dwelling is permitted).
- Design, etc. Compatibility requirements have been eliminated because “preserving neighborhood character” is often an anti-change, anti-renter requirement.
- What about parking? No parking is required (it’s not prohibited, but simply left up to the developer to decide what’s needed) because it can add to the cost of the unit.
- Plus, Tiny Houses on wheels may be ADUs if installed on foundations and connected to city services.
Process: The Planning Commission holds a public hearing Thursday, November 15, 2018 at 7 pm in the City Council chambers to hear testimony (please come!), make findings of fact and recommend action to the City Council to amend the ordinance (or not amend it, but this is unlikely barring new information as the PC was united and unanimous in voting to send it to a hearing). The Council (probably in January) will vote to approve the first reading of the ordinance, then approve the second reading (where minor corrections may be made) and publication in the official newspaper.
But there’s more. After this change is made, there’s still work to be done to fix the rental code. The rental code limits rentals to 20% of the houses in a single block in highly desirably, well-connected, affluent neighborhoods (like my east side neighborhood). The ADU revision is a positive step to let property owners decide how to use their property by adding units as they need or want to do so with benefits to the City, too. Amending the rental code will require a more direct conversation about housing with the people who are very concerned about what is happening in your backyard and its impact on their backyard.